Commencing Deep Seabed Mining: A Review on Law No. 3 of 2020 on Mineral and Coal Mining
Keywords:deep seabed mining, Law No. 3 of 202, mineral mining, coal mining, UNCLOS
In 2020, the Government of Indonesia enacted Law No. 3 of 2020 on Mineral and Coal Mining, which amended Law No. 4 of 2009 on Mineral and Coal Mining. Under this amendment, Law No. 3 of 2020 on Mineral and Coal Mining expands the definition of mining law territories, as stipulated under Article 1, number 28a. This provision covers the mining law territories of the Indonesian archipelago, seabed area, and continental shelf. This study explores the legal consequences of the term “seabed area” in Law No. 3 of 2020 on Mineral and Coal Mining, to determine whether the law paves the way for deep seabed mining. Through normative and descriptive approaches, this study found that despite the broader definitions of mining territories, Law No. 3 of 2020 on Mineral and Coal Mining is insufficient to initiate deep seabed mining. This is because seabed mining requires a detailed governance structure, especially on the rights and duties of every party involved. Therefore, this paper recommends that the activity be regulated by a distinctive law that specifically addresses seabed mining.
Anton, Donald. “The Principle of Residual Liability in the Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea: The Advisory Opinion on Responsibility and Liability for International Seabed Mining (ITLOS Case. 17).” McGill International Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy 7, no. 2 (2012): 245–46.
Davenport, Tara. Responsibility and Liability for Damage Arising Out of Activities in the Area: Attribution of Liability. Canada: Centre for International Governance Innovation, 2019.
Hallgreen, Axel, and Anders Hansson. “Conflicting Narratives of Deep Sea Mining.” Sustainability 13, no. 5261 (2021): 6–9. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/su13095261.
Harrison, James. “The Inernational Seabed Authority and the Development of the Legal Regime for Deep Seabed Mining.” University of Edinburg School of Law Working Paper No. 2010/17. 2010/17. Edinburgh, 2010. https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1609687.
Jowitt, Simon (et.al). “Future Availability of Non-Renewable Metal Resources and the Influence of Environmental, Social, and Governance Conflicts on Metal Production.” Communications Earth & Environment1, no. 13 (2020): 2. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-020-0011-.
Keyuan, Zou. “China’s Effort in Deep Sea-Bed Mining: Law and Practice, The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law.” The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law18, no. 4 (2003): 483. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1163/157180803322710994.
Kim, Rakhyun E. “Should Deep Seabed Mining Be Allowed?” Marine Policy82 (2017): 134–37.
Kirsten, Hund. Minerals for Climate Action: The Mineral Intensity of the Clean Energy Transition. Washington D.C: World Bank, 2020.
Lessley, Kim. “How Tech Can Help Bridge the Equality Divide.” Forbes.com, 2020. https://www.forbes.com/sites/sap/2020/12/10/how-tech-can-help-bridge-the-equality-divide/?sh=4257f60d174f.
“Menko Maritim Luncurkan Data Rujukan Wilayah Kelautan Indonesia.” Coordinating Ministry for Maritime Affairs and Investment, Kementrian Koordinator Bidang Kemaritiman dan Investasi. Accessed February 16, 2022. https://maritim.go.id/menko-maritim-luncurkan-data-rujukan-wilayah-kelautan-indonesia/.
Miller, Kathryn A., Kirsten F. Thompson, and David Santillo. “An Overview of Seabed Mining Including the Current State of Development, Environmental Impacts, and Knowledge Gaps.” Frontiers in Marine Science4, no. 418 (2018): 2–6.
“Mining and Metals: Digital Transformation and the Industry’s ‘New Normal.” World Economic Forum, n.d. https://reports.weforum.org/digital-transformation/mining-and-metals-digital-transformation-and-the-industrys-new-normal/.
Oyarce, Ximena. “Sponsoring States in the Area: Obligations, Liability and the Role of Developing States.” Marine Policy95 (2018): 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.06.002.
Paulikas, Daina (et.al). “Life Cycle Climate Change Impacts of Producing Battery Metals from Land Ores versus Deep-Sea Polymetallic Nodules.” Journal of Cleaner Production 275, no. 123822 (2020): 7–8, 17–18. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123822.
“Presiden Jokowi Nyatakan Komitmen Indonesia Dalam Perlindungan Laut.” Sekretariat Kabinet Republik Indonesia. Accessed February 16, 2022. https://setkab.go.id/presiden-jokowi-nyatakan-komitmen-indonesia-dalam-perlindungan-laut/.
Putuhena, M. Ilham F. “Urgensi Pengaturan Mengenai Eksplorasi Dan Eksploitasi Pertambangan Di Area Dasar Laut Internasional (International Seabed Area).” Jurnal Rechtsvinding 8, no. 1 (2019): 178.
Rojas, Andres Sebastian, and Freedom-Kai Phillips. Effective Control and Deep Seabed Mining: Toward a Definition. Canada: Centre for International Governance Innovation, 2019.
Sparenberg, Ola. “A Historical Perspective on Deep-Sea Mining for Manganese Nodules, 1965-2019.” The Extractive Industries and Society6, no. 3 (2019): 1–2, 10–11. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.04.001.
“The Mining Code.” International Seabed Authority. Accessed February 17, 2022. https://www.isa.org.jm/mining-code.
Willaert, Klaas. “Crafting the Perfect Deep Sea Mining Legislation: A Patchwork of National Laws.” Marine Policy119 (2020).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Brawijaya Law Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.