Expanding the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court

Authors

  • Iman Prihandono Faculty of Law, Universitas Airlangga
  • Dewi Santoso Yuniarti Faculty of Law, Universitas Airlangga

Abstract

Environmental destruction and exploitation of natural resources are some of the main causes of humanitarian conflicts, which are often international in scale. This can be seen in the commission of the alleged crime of genocide by the then Sudanse President Omar Al-Bashir who has exploited natural resources, causing water pollution in Darfur, Sudan. This case becomes an evidence that environmental destruction can also be a driving factor for crimes against humanity and war crimes. In response, the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued a Policy Paper, which sets out considerations to prosecute cases of environmental destruction and illegal exploitation of natural resources, which is referred to by some as ecocide. With the growing demand of the international community, natural persons and also corporations are urged to be prosecuted before the ICC for ecocide. As a normative legal research, this paper is intended to outline the move to demand the ICC to prosecute cases of ecocide, whilst challenging the existing jurisdiction of the ICC based on the Rome Statute. This paper will analyse whether the ICC has jurisdiction to adjudicate ecocide by expanding its jurisdiction to prosecute corporations for ecocide committed by citizens of non-State Parties to the Rome Statute such as Indonesia. This paper concludes with constructive recommendations, especially for corporations to start re-evaluating their business plans to put environment and human rights awareness into priority.

References

Arsenault, Chris. “Landless Cambodian Farmers Look to International Criminal Court for Justice.” Reuters (November 22 2016) <https://www.reuters.com/article/us-icc-cambodia-landrights-idUSKBN13H1J9> accessed on September 15 2021.

Bassiouni, M Cherif. Crime Against Humanity in International Criminal Law. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publication, 1992.

“‘Cambodian Villagers’ International Criminal Court Complaint (Re Land Grabbing).” Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (October 7 2014). https://www.business-humanrights.org/en/latest-news/cambodian-villagers-intl-criminal-court-complaint-re-land-grabbing/ accessed on September 27 2021.

Charter of the United Nations, (signed June 26, 1945, entered into force October 24, 1945) 1 U.N.T.S. XVI.

Chulov, Martin. “Iraq: Water, Water Nowhere.” World Policy Journal 26, no. 4 (2009).

Clapham, Andrew. “The Questions of Jurisdiction Under International Criminal Law Over Legal Persons: Lessons from the Rome Conference on an International Criminal Court.” In Liability of Multinational Corporations Under International Law, ed. Menno T. Kamminga and Saman Zia-Zarifi. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Durney, Jessica. “Crafting a Standard: Environmental Crimes as Crimes Against Humanity Under the International Criminal Court.” Hastings Environmental Law Journal 24, no. 2 (2018).

Edgerton, Laura. “Eco-terrorist Acts During the Persian Gulf War: Is International Law Sufficient to Hold Iraq Liable.” Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law 22, (1992).

Global Diligence LLP. ICC Cambodian Case Study (Global Diligence).

Global Diligence. “Land Grabbers May End Up In The Hague: Global Diligence Welcomes The ICC Prosecutor’s New Case Selection Policy.” Centre de Ressources sur les Entreprises et les Droits de I’Homme (September 15 2016) <https://www.business-humanrights.org/fr/dernières-actualités/land-grabbers-may-end-up-in-the-hague-global-diligence-welcomes-the-icc-prosecutors-new-case-selection-policy/> accessed on 27 October 2021.

Greene, Anastacia. “The Campaign to Make Ecocide an International Crime: Quixotic Quest or Moral Imperative?” Fordham Environmental Law Review 30, no. 3 (2019).

Harman, John and Joseph Borg. “The environmental consequences of the Kosovo conflict.” Council of Europe <https://rm.coe.int/the-environmental-consequences-of-the-kosovo-conflict/16807188c5> accessed on 1 November 2021.

Hemptinne, Jérôme de, “Ecocide: an Ambiguous Crime?,” EJIL:Talk! (August 29 2022) < https://www.ejiltalk.org/ecocide-an-ambiguous-crime/> accessed on August 30 2022.

Hurd, Ian. “The UN Security Council and the International Rule of Law.” The Chinese Journal of International Politics 7, no. 3 (2014).

“ICC Issues a Warrant of Arrest for Omar Al Bashir President of Sudan (ICC-CPI-20090304-PR394).” International Criminal Court (March 4 2009) <https://www.icc-cpi.int/pages/item.aspx?name=icc+issues+a+warrant+of+arrest+for+omar+al+bashir_+president+of+sudan> accessed on September 21 2021.

International Criminal Court. Text of the Draft Statute for the International Criminal Court (1998) UN Doc. A/AC.249/1998/CRP.9.

“Indonesia's Fire and Haze Crisis.” World Bank (November 25 2015) <https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2015/12/01/indonesias-fire-and-haze-crisis> accessed on 30 September 2021.

“Indonesia punishes 23 companies for causing forest fires.” The Jakarta Post (December 23 2015) <https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2015/12/23/indonesia-punishes-23-companies-causing-forest-fires.html> accessed on 20 October 2021.

“Joint Letter to UNHRC on Human Rights Situation in Cambodia.” Human Rights Watch (August 20 2015) <https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/08/20/joint-letter-unhrc-human-rights-situation-cambodia> accessed on September 16 2021.

Koalisi Masyarakat Sipil untuk Mahkamah Pidana Internasional. ‘Mengenal ICC’ Koalisi Masyarakat Sipil Untuk Mahkamah Pidana Internasional. Jakarta: Sentralisme Production, 2009.

Krings, Britta Lisa. “The Principles of ‘Complementarity’ and Universal Jurisdiction in International Criminal Law: Antagonists or Perfect Match?” Goettingen Journal of International Law 4, no. 3 (2012).

“Lands Grabs and Other Destructive Environmental Practices in Cambodia Test the International Criminal Court.” Inside Climate News (March 23 2021), <https://insideclimatenews.org/news/23032021/land-grab-deforestation-international-criminal-court-cambodia-ecocide/> accessed on 29 October 2021.

Lumbanrau, Raja Eben. “Di mana ada tambang di situ ada penderitaan dan kerusakan lingkungan, nelangsa warga dan alam di lingkar tambang.” BBC News Indonesia (June 7 2021) <https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-5734684> accessed on October 25 2021.

Oehm, Franziska Maria. “Land Grabbing in Cambodia as a Crime Against Humanity – Approaches in International Criminal Law.” Verfassung und Recht in Übersee VRÜ 48 (2015).

Office of the Prosecutor. Policy Paper on Case Selection and Prioritisation. The Hague: International Criminal Court, 2016. <https://www.icc-cpi.int/sites/default/files/itemsDocuments/20160915_OTP-Policy_Case-Selection_Eng.pdf>.

Office of the Prosecutor. Report on Preliminary Examination Activities 2020. The Hague: International Criminal Court, 2020. <https://www.icc-cpi.int/sites/default/files/itemsDocuments/2020-PE/2020-pe-report-eng.pdf>.

Office of the Prosecutor. Twenty-Ninth Report Of The Prosecutor Of The United Nations Security Council Pursuant To UNSCR 159. The Hague: International Criminal Court, 2005.

Perrera, Ricardo. “After the ICC Office of the Prosecutor’s 2016 Policy Paper on Case Selection and Prioritisation: Towards an International Crime of Ecocide?” Criminal Law Forum 31, (2020).

Prosperi, Luigi and Jacopo Terrosi. “Embracing the ‘Human Factor’.” Journal of International Criminal Justice 15, no. 5, (2017).

“Rekapitulasi Luas Kebakaran Hutan dan Lahan (Ha) Per Provinsi Di Indonesia Tahun 2016-2021.” Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry <http://sipongi.menlhk.go.id/hotspot/luas_kebakaran> accessed on September 25 2021.

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, (adopted July 17, 1998, entered into force July 1, 2002) 2178 UNTS 3.

Scheffer, David and Caroline Kaeb. “The Five Levels of CSR Compliance: The Resiliency of Corporate Liability under the Alien Tort Statute and the Case for a Counterattack Strategy in Compliance Theory.” Berkeley Journal of International Law 29, no. 1 (2011).

Schmid, Evelyne. Taking Economic, Social And Cultural Rights Seriously In International Criminal Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

“Situation in Darfur, Sudan (ICC-02/05).” International Criminal Court <https://www.icc-cpi.int/darfur> accessed on September 21 2021.

Smith, Tara. “Why the International Criminal Court is Right to Focus on the Environment.” The Conversation (September 23 2016) <https://theconversation.com/why-the-international-criminal-court-is-right-to-focus-on-the-environment-65920> accessed on 20 November 2021.

Stop Ecocide Foundation. Independent Expert Panel for the Legal Definition of Ecocide, Commentary and Core Text (2021).

Trahan, Jennifer. “The Relationship Between the International Criminal Court and the U.N. Security Council: Parameters and Best Practices.” Criminal Law Forum 24 (2013).

United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court. Report of the Preparatory Committee on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, Addendum. Rome, April 14, 1998. UN Doc. A/CONF-183/2/Add-1.

United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court. Report of the Preparatory Committee on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court. Rome, February 4, 1998. UN Doc. A/CONF.183/2.

United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court. Working Group on General Principles of Criminal Law. Rome, July 3, 1998. UN Doc. A/CONF.183/C.1/WGGP/L.5/Rev.2.

UNSC Res 2408 (March 27, 2018) UN Doc. S/RES/2408.

UNSC Res 2429 (July 13, 2018) UN Doc. S/RES/2429.

Vidal, John and Owen Bowcott. “ICC Widens Remit to Include Environmental Destruction Cases.” The Guardian (15 September 2016) <https://www.theguardian.com/global/2016/sep/15/hague-court-widens-remit-to-include-environmental-destruction-cases> accessed on 20 November 2021.

Wagner, Markus. “ICC Jurisdiction – Myths, Misperceptions and Realities.” Max Planck UNYB 7 (2003).

Published

2022-10-31

How to Cite

Prihandono, Iman, and Dewi Santoso Yuniarti. 2022. “Expanding the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court”. Brawijaya Law Journal : Journal of Legal Studies 9 (2). https://lawjournal.ub.ac.id/index.php/law/article/view/960.