Expanding the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court
Environmental destruction and exploitation of natural resources are some of the main causes of humanitarian conflicts, which are often international in scale. This can be seen in the commission of the alleged crime of genocide by the then Sudanse President Omar Al-Bashir who has exploited natural resources, causing water pollution in Darfur, Sudan. This case becomes an evidence that environmental destruction can also be a driving factor for crimes against humanity and war crimes. In response, the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued a Policy Paper, which sets out considerations to prosecute cases of environmental destruction and illegal exploitation of natural resources, which is referred to by some as ecocide. With the growing demand of the international community, natural persons and also corporations are urged to be prosecuted before the ICC for ecocide. As a normative legal research, this paper is intended to outline the move to demand the ICC to prosecute cases of ecocide, whilst challenging the existing jurisdiction of the ICC based on the Rome Statute. This paper will analyse whether the ICC has jurisdiction to adjudicate ecocide by expanding its jurisdiction to prosecute corporations for ecocide committed by citizens of non-State Parties to the Rome Statute such as Indonesia. This paper concludes with constructive recommendations, especially for corporations to start re-evaluating their business plans to put environment and human rights awareness into priority.
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