Looking Beyond the Constitution: Legislative Efforts toward Environmental Rights in Nigeria: A Review of Some Salient Legislations


  • Brown Umukoro Delta State University, Oleh Campus




environmental impact assessment, environmental rights, fundamental rights, gas flaring, petroleum industry, Climate Change


The search light for environmental rights in Nigeria has been focused on the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 (as amended) with occasional references to case laws, which are limited and unprogressive on the subject. Most reviews of relevant legislations on the environment have been centered on themes such as environmental protection, environmental degradation, and damage arising from pollution. Apart from studies on whether the Constitution guarantees any right to clean environment, inquiries are hardly directed at the provisions of other statutes and policies on the environment on the extent to which they support environmental rights. This paper is a review of some salient legislations on environmental protection with a view to establish legislative authority for the right to clean and a healthy and sustainable environment in Nigeria. There exists a notable legislative platform on which one may insist on the right to clean environment in Nigeria notwithstanding the constitutional constraints on the enforcement of the duty of the Government to protect and improve the environment.


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Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 (as amended) 1999.

Federal Enactments

African Charter (Ratification and Enforcement) Act Cap A10 LFN 2004

Climate Change Act 2021

Environmental Impact Assessment Act Cap E10 LFN 2004

Federal Environment Protection Agency Act Cap F10 LFN 2004

Harmful Waste (Special Criminal Provisions, etc) Act Cap H1 LFN 2004

National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (Establishment) Act 2007

National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (Establishment Act) 2006

Niger Delta Development Commission (Establishment, etc) Act Cap N6 LFN 2004

Oil in Navigable Waters Act Cap O6 LFN 2004

Oil Pipelines Act Cap O7 LFN 2004

Petroleum Industry Act 2021

State Laws

Delta State Environmental Sanitation Law Cap. D.17 Laws of Delta State 2006

Delta State Waste Management Law Cap. Laws of Delta State, 2006

Lagos State Waste Management Authority Law 2015

Rivers State Waste Management Law 2014


National Environmental (Mining and Processing of Coal, Ores and Industrial Minerals) Regulations 2009

NEP (Pollution Abatement in Industries and Factories Generating Waste) Regulation 2009

Oil Spill and Oil Waste Management Regulation 2011

Oil Spill Recovery, Clean Up Remediation and Damage Assessment Regulation 2011

Nation Environmental (Sanitation and Waste Control) Regulation 2009

National Environmental (Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Soap and Detergent Manufacturing Industries) Regulation 2009

National Environmental (Food, Beverages and Tobacco Sector) Regulation 2009

National Environmental (Noise Standards and Control) Regulations 2009

National Environmental (Ozone Layer Protection) Regulations 2009

National Environmental (Sanitation and Waste Control) Regulation 2009

National Environmental (Textile, Wearing Apparel, Leather and Footwear Industry) Regulation 2009

Rules of Court

Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules 2009




How to Cite

Umukoro, Brown. 2022. “Looking Beyond the Constitution: Legislative Efforts Toward Environmental Rights in Nigeria: A Review of Some Salient Legislations”. Brawijaya Law Journal 9 (2):141-64. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.blj.2022.009.02.03.