New and Renewable Energy: Ensuring the Hydropower Development Policy Meets the Community and the Environmental Participation Based on the Paris Agreement
Keywords:energy, hydropower plants, community participation, environment
Energy demand is rapidly increasing, following population growth and economic trends, including the demand for electrical energy. Indonesia seeks to transition to the use of new and renewable energy to supply its demand for electricity. The national strategic program to construct 65 dams in 2023 is the fundamental foundation for the government’s ability to bring about this massive development. One of the many essential uses of reservoirs is as a source of hydropower energy. However, have been many cases of rejection by local communities that do not consider themselves to have been fairly consulted for or participating in the development process. Another premise of this rejection is founded on environmental issues related to the Paris Agreement. This article focuses on meeting challenges to community and environmental participation based on the Paris Agreement. New and renewable energy policies incorporate novel regulations pertaining to the government’s authority to work on the new renewable energy projects. Hydropower development projects fall under the government’s efforts to switch to new sources of renewable energy. Insufficient involvement of the local community in development and activities, to the extent that the information and comprehension on where the hydropower dams are expected to be built are exceptionally lacking but are also, due to the impact of the development toward the environment, the main source of refusal from the local community. Finally in accordance with the Paris Agreement, insufficient attention toward the landscape will likely impair the ability to create future hydropower development projects.
Abdulkadir, Ariono. Electricity Series Volume 2: New, Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation. Bandung: ITB, 2011.
Andriyansyah, Anugrah. “Pembangunan PLTA Batang Toru, Siapa Yang Terkena Dampak Negatif Dan Dirugikan ?” https://www.voaindonesia.com/, 2019. https://www.voaindonesia.com/a/pembangunan-plta-batang-toru-siapa-yang-terkena-dampak-negatif-dan-dirugikan-/4902063.html.
Anggraini, Melaty. “Renewable Energy Policy as Indonesia’s Energy Security Strategy.” Mandala: Jurnal Ilmu Hubungan Internasional 5, no. 1 (2022): 24–47. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.33822/mjihi.v5i1.4108.
Anindarini, Grita. “Urgensi Partisipasi Publik Dalam Mendorong Transisi Energi Yang Berkeadilan.” In ICEL, 5. Jakarta: ICEL, 2021.
“Art 7 (5) Paris Conventioan,” n.d.
Asshiddqie, Jimly. Green Constitutuion : Nuansa Hijau Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945. Jakarta: Rajawali press, 2009.
Auestad, Inger, Yngve Nilsen, and Knut Rydgren. “Environmental Restoration in Hydropower Development—Lessons from Norway.” Sustainability 10, no. 9 (September 2018): 3358. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093358.
Azhar, Muhamad. “Implementation of New Energy and Renewable Energy Policies in the Context of National Energy Security.” Administrative Law and Government Journal 1, no. 4 (2018): 405.
Azhar, Muhamad, Solechan Solechan, Retno Saraswati, Putut Suharso, Suhartoyo Suhartoyo, and Budi Ispriyarso. “The New Renewable Energy Consumption Policy of Rare Earth Metals to Build Indonesia’s National Energy Security.” In E3S Web of Conferences, 68:3008. EDP Sciences, 2018.
Daryanto. Problems and Its Use for Human Life. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Widyatama, 2007.
Denis Meilanova Riantiza. “Cadangan Batu Bara Indonesia Masih Cukup Untuk 65 Tahun.” Accessed August 30, 2022. https://ekonomi.bisnis.com/read/20210727/44/1422298/cadangan-batu-bara-indonesia-masih-cukup-untuk-65-tahun#:~:text=Bisnis.com%2C JAKARTA—Indonesia,mencapai 38%2C84 miliar to.
Ellabban, Omar, Haitham Abu-Rub, and Frede Blaabjerg. “Renewable Energy Resouces: Current Status, Future Prospects and Their Enabling Technology.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review 39 (2014): 749.
“Explanation of Article 2 (1) a of Law No 30 of 2009 Concerning of Electricity,” n.d.
Freeman, Olivia E., Lalisa A. Duguma, and Peter A. Minang. “Operationalizing the Integrated Landscape Approach in Practice.” Ecology and Society 20, no. 1 (2015): art24. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-07175-200124.
GLF 2018. “Global Landscape Forum: Together, Healthy World Landscapes,” n.d.
Hamdan, Hafis. “Warga Kalumpang Tolak PLTA Sungai Karama Karena Dinilai Ancaman Situs Sejarah.” Accessed September 3, 2022. https://www.detik.com/sulsel/berita/d-6257887/warga-kalumpang-tolak-plta-sungai-karama-karena-dinilai-ancam-situs-sejarah.
Handayani, IGAKR, Edi As’Adi, Guntur Hamzah, Tommy Leonard, and Gunarto Gunarto. “Relationship between Energy Consumption in International Market and Indonesia Prices Regulation” 7, no. 5 (2017): 9–15.
Hardjosoemantri, Koesnadi. Hukum Lingkungan. Yogyakarta: GadjahMada University Press, 2005.
Holgren, Peter. “Landscapes – Part 1: Why Landscapes Matter?,” n.d.
Holmgren, Peter. “Landscapes for Sustainable Development,” n.d. https://forestsnews.cifor.org/12517/landscapes-for-sustainable-development?fnl=en.
Jaelani, Aan, Slamet Firdaus, and Juju Jumena. “Renewable Energy Policy in Indonesia: The Qur’anic Scientific Signals in Islamic Economics Perspective.” International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy 7, no. 4 (2017).
Khotimah, Khusnus. “The Realization of State Defense Awareness through a Culture of Community Participation in Renewable Energy Management.” Jurnal Pertahanan Dan Bela Negara 8, no. 2 (2018): 62.
M, Rizky Nur Laily. “Mereka Yang Tersisih Dan Terancam Pembangunan Bendungan Tertinggi Di Indonesia.” https://www.merdeka.com/, 2021. https://www.merdeka.com/jateng/mereka-yang-tersisih-dan-terancam-pembangunan-bendungan-tertinggi-indonesia.html.
Maulidia, Marta. “Rethinking Renewable Energy Targets and Electricity Sector Reform in Indonesia : A Private Sector Perspective.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review 101 (2019): 231. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.11.005.
Mesakaraeng, Samuel. “Rencana Pembangunan Bendungan PLTA Pokko, Wabub Mamasa Bilang Begini.” https://makassar.tribunnews.com/, 2019. https://makassar.tribunnews.com/2019/10/17/rencana-pembangunan-bendungan-plta-pokko-wabup-mamasa-bulang-begini.
Nur, Faisal. “Community Participation in the Village Infrastructure Development Process,.” Pascasarjana Unhas, n.d.
Nura, Joni. “Pro Kontra Pembangunan Waduk Lambo, 2 Suku Adat Nagekeo Nyaris Bentrok.” daerah.sindonews.com, 2022. https://daerah.sindonews.com/read/723771/174/pro-kontra-pembangunan-waduk-lambo-2-suku-adat-di-nagekeo-nyaris-bentrok-1648206235.
“Optimizing Hydropower for Renewable Energy, This Is Indonesia’s Main Challenge,” n.d.
“Participation as the Involvement of People Voluntarily without Pressure and Away from Government External Interests.,” n.d.
Pietrosemoli, Licia, and Carlos Rodríguez Monroy. “The Impact of Sustainable Construction and Knowledge Management on Sustainability Goals. A Review of the Venezuelan Renewable Energy Sector.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 27 (2013): 683–91.
Purba, Achmad Zen Umar. “Kepentingan Negara Dalam Industri Perminyakan Di Indonesia: Hukum Internasional, Konstitusi, Dan Globalisasi.” Indonesian J. Int’l L. 4 (2006): 252.
Purwanto, S. K., Obsatar Sinaga, and Morni Hayati Jaafar Sidik. “Ensuring Renewable Energy, Consumption Through Innovation, R&D and Energy Import in Indonesia: A Time Series Analysis.” International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy 11, no. 1 (December 2020): 577–83. https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.10715.
Ramsay, Deana, and Catriona Croft-Cusworth. “Menghadapi Tantangan Terbesar Dunia Melalui Pendekatan Bentang Alam,” n.d.
Refom, Institute for Esential Service. “Indonesia and the Ratification of the Paris Agreement, Where Is Indonesia??,” n.d. https://iesr.or.id/indonesia-dan-ratifikasi-paris-agreement-di-manakah-kita.
Siaran Pers Nomor: 410.Pers/04/Sji/2021. “Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia,” 2021.
Sigalingging, Angelius Hendry. “Community Participation in the Implementation of Development.” Jurnal Administrasi Publik 2, no. 2 (2014): 117.
Susetyo, Pramono Dwi. “Quo Vadis Forest Protection Regulation,” n.d.
Udin, Udin. “Renewable Energy and Human Resource Development: Challenges and Oppurtunities in Indonesia.” International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy 10, no. 2 (January 2020): 233–37. https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.8782.
“Warga Mamuju Tolak Pembangunan PLTH.” makassar.antaranews.com, 2009. https://makassar.antaranews.com/berita/5504/warga-mamuju-tolak-pembangunan-pltmh.
Wartiningsih. Forestry Crime-Involvement and Accountability of Forestry Policy Operators. Surabaya: Setara Press, 2014.
Watch, German. Public Participation and Transparency in Power Grid Planning. German: Germanwatch e.V, 2015.
Wibawa, Kadek Cahya Susila. “Mengembangkan Partisipasi Masyarakat Dalam Perlindungan Dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup Untuk Pembangunan Berkelanjutan.” Administrative Law & Governance Journal 85, no. 1 (2019): 85.
Widya Yudha, Satya, and Benny Tjahjono. “Stakeholder Mapping and Analysis of the Renewable Energy Industry in Indonesia.” Energies 12, no. 4 (February 2019): 602. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040602.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Brawijaya Law Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.