Piracy off The Coast of Indonesia: Potential Implications on The Craft Industry

Kalu Kingsley Anele

Abstract


Piracy off Indonesia may implicate on craft, a significant non-oil foreign exchange earner in the country’s economic development. For instance, piracy may affect tourists’ use of cruise ships, the exportation of craft products, and the importation of raw materials and equipment for craft production in Indonesia. Consequently, it is imperative to repress piracy off the Indonesian coast. In determining the potential effects of piracy to craft, this paper addressed the linkages between piracy and craft with observed, that piracy may pose a threat to the Indonesian craft industry. Afterward, the causes and effects of piracy on Indonesia’s craft industry were interrogating. It was submitted that hijacking a cruise ship may have humanitarian and financial implications on the Indonesian craft industry.  The paper suggested measures to curb piracy off the Indonesian coast and argued, inter alia, that updated piracy legal regimes, strengthened institutional framework, and regional cooperation are central to combating piracy off the coast of Indonesia.


Keywords


craft; piracy; Indonesian coast; KUHP; LOSC; SUA Convention

Full Text:

PDF

References


Books

BMP 4: Best Management Practices for Protection against Somalia based pirates”, (Version 4 – August 2011, Whiterby Publishing Group Ltd, 2011) 71.

Pavitta, Fryza P., et al (eds.), Craft (Simpul Group: Jakarta, 2019) 16.

OPUS, Creative economy-outlook 2019 (BEKRAF, Jakarta, 2018). 48.

Chapters in Books

Young, Adam J., ‘Roots of contemporary maritime piracy in Southeast Asia’, in D. Johnson & M. Valencia (eds.) Piracy in Southeast Asia: status, issues and responses (ISEAS Singapore 2005) 2.

Statutes

Indonesian Penal Code (Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Pidana).

Presidential Regulations

National Industry Policy No. 28, 2008, Presidential Regulation No. 72, 2014.

Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia No. 16 of 2017.

Presidential Instruction No. 6 of 2009.

Presidential Regulation No. 92 of 2011.

Presidential Regulation No. 26, 2012.

Conventions

Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, adopted 10 March 1988, UNTS 1678.

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, adopted in 1982 and came into force 1994, 21 ILM (1982), 1261.

Journal articles

Arief, Fadilah. H., ‘Indonesian crafts: the overlooked potential of geographical indication’, (2016) 2(3) International Journal of Culture and History 87, 87.

Arif, Muhamad and Yandry Kurniawan, ‘Strategic culture and Indonesian maritime security’, (2018) 5(1) Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies, doi: 10.1002/app5.203, 77, 80.

Aufiya, Mohd. Agoes, ‘Indonesia’s global maritime fulcrum: contribution in the Indo-Pacific Region’, (2017) 6(2) Andalas Journal of International Studies 143, 143-159.

Axbard, Sebastian, ‘Income opportunities and sea piracy in Indonesia’, (2016) 8 (2) American Economic Journal: Applied Economics

Briandana, Rizki, et al, ‘Promotion analysis of marine tourism in Indonesia: a case study’, (2018) XXI (1) European Research Studies Journal go 2, 602.

Chuta, Lakhimi J. & Mrinmoy K. Sarma, ‘Commercialization of traditional crafts of South and South East Asia: a conceptual model based on review of literature’, (2016) 5(2) IIM Kozhikode Society & Management Review.

Daxecker, Ursula E. & Brandon C. Prins, ‘The politicization of crime: electoral competition and the supply of marine piracy in Indonesia’, (2016) 169 Policy Choice, DOI 10.1007/s11127-016-0374-z.

Djalal, Hasjim, ‘Piracy in South East Asia: Indonesian & regional responses’, (2004) 1 (3) Indonesia Journal of International Law

Espenilla, Jacqueline J.F., “Expanding the Right of Hot Pursuit: challenges for cooperative maritime law enforcement between the Philippines and Indonesia”, (2017) 9 (1) International Journal of maritime Affairs and Fisheries

Harrelson, Jill, “Blackbeard meets blackwater: an analysis of international conventions that address piracy and the use of private security companies to protect the shipping industry”, (2010) 5(2) American University International Law Review, 283, 284.

Hastings, Justin V., ‘Understanding maritime piracy syndicate operations’, (2012) 21(4) Security Studies https://doi.org/10.1080/09636412.2012.734234.

Iriana, Reiny & Fredrik Sjoholm, ‘Indonesia’s economic crisis: contagion and fundamentals’, (2002) The Developing Economies.

Nikolic, Nebojsa & Eduard Missoni, ‘Piracy on the high seas-threats to travelers’, (2014) 20(5) Journal of Travel Medicine, DOI: 10.1111/jtm.12051.

Octora, Rachel, ‘Renewal of criminal law: draft of Indonesian criminal code, spirit of codification and its effects on law harmonization’, (2016) 46(3) Journal Hukum & Pembangunan.

Prange, Sebastian R., ‘Asian piracy’, (2017) Indian Ocean Studies, DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190277727.013.32.

Riani, Asri Laksmi, et al, ‘The acceleration of traditional Batik (creation and combination) through integrated management to support the acceleration in regional economic development’, (2016) 4(4) Strategic Management Quarterly DOI: 10.15640/smq.v4n4a4.

Setyorini, Christina Tri, et al, ‘Strengthening the internal factors of Batik cluster SMEs in Indonesia: a case of six districts in South-Central Java’, (2013) 3(1) International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology.

Stach, Lukasz, ‘Neverending story? Problem of maritime piracy in Southeast Asia’, (2017) 7(12) International Journal of Social Science and Humanity.

Sulistiyono, A.B., et al, ‘4M study to support Indonesia’s maritime tourism development’, (2017) 11(4) The International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, DOI: 10.12716/1001.11.04.20

Suseto, Buddy, et al, “The need to reform Indonesia’s maritime strategy: a review”, (2018) 50(2) Indonesian Journal of Geography. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22146/ijg.27954.

Teitler, Ger, ‘Piracy in Southeast Asia. A historical comparison’, (2002) 1(1) Mast 5.

Tumbarska A., ‘Maritime piracy and armed robbery evolution in 2008-2017’, (2018) II(1) International Scientific Journal Security & Future 18, 19.

Twyman, Anamika A. -Ghoshal & Glenn Pierce, ‘The changing nature of contemporary maritime piracy’, (2014) Brit. J. Criminol, doi:10.1093/bjc/azu019.

Upadhyaya, Shishir, ‘Malacca Strait Security Initiative: potential for Indian navy’s participation in the evolving regional security environment’, (2009) 5(2) Maritime Affairs.

Virkar, Anjali R. & Prita D. Mallya, ‘A review of dimensions of tourism transport affecting tourist satisfaction’, (2018) IX(1) Indian Journal of Commerce & Management Studies DOI: 10.18843/ijcms/v9i1/10.

Williamson, Hugh R., ‘New thinking in the fight against marine piracy: financing and plunder pre-empting piracy before prevention becomes necessary’, (2013) 6 Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law.

Syaprin M. Zahidi, ‘Batik as Indonesian public diplomacy in ASEAN Economic Community (AEC)’, (2017) 3(2) International Journal of International Relations, Media and Mass Communication Studies

UNGAR

The United Nations General Assembly, Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 5 December 2008, A/RES/63/111, 12 February 2009.

Reports

ICC/IMB Piracy and armed robbery against ships: report for the period 1 January – 31 December 2019, January 2020, hereafter referred to as the “ICC/IMB Piracy Report for 2019”, 18.

ICC International Maritime Bureau (IMB) Piracy and armed robbery against ships: report for the period 1 January – 31 December 2018, January 2019.

Soft law

IMO Code of Practice for Investigation of Crimes of Piracy and Armed Robbery against ships extends this concern and urged states to create and produce agreements as a tool to cooperate and combat piracy as well as armed robbery against ships, Resolution A.1025 (26) adopted on 2 December 2009 (Agenda item 10), A 26/Res.1025, 18 January 2010.

Conference/seminar papers/dissertations

Burlando, Alfredo, et al, The trade consequences of maritime insecurity: evidence from Somali piracy, (Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA), 24 October 2014), 2.

Chia, Roderick, et al, Maritime predations in the Malacca Straits: treading new waters (Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies, NTS Insight, August/1, 2009)

Febrica, Senia, ‘Explaining Indonesia’s participation in maritime security cooperation’, (submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Ph.D, School of Social Sciences, University of Glasgow, 2014).

Financing opportunities in Indonesia’s creative industry: final report, (IPSOS Business Consulting, April 2018), 16.

Joanne M. Fish, A cross-disciplinary approach to the maritime security risk of piracy and lessons learned from agent-based modeling (a dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Old Dominion University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, International Studies, Old Dominion University, December 2017), DOI: 10.25777/spk1-5d03.

Gerke, Solvay & Hans-Dieter Evers, ‘The strategic importance of the Straits of Malacca’, (Nusantara Papers No. 2, 2016), 2.

Hartono, Djoko & David Ehrmann, The Indonesian economic crisis and its impact on educational enrolment and quality, (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, No. 7, May 2001), 3.

Hayakawa, Kazunobu, et al, Transportation costs in archipelagos: evidence from Indonesia (Institute of Developing Economies (IDE) Discussion Paper No. 756, 2019) 4. See also Kang H. Leung, Indonesia’s summary transport assessment (ADB Papers on Indonesia No. 15, August 2016)

Historical & Culture (Sumatera Utara e-Brochure).

Hribernik M., ‘Multilateral counter-piracy cooperation in Southeast Asia: the role of Japan’, (2017) 17(3) Pacific Forum CSIS Issues & Insights, Honolulu, Hawaii, March 2017.

Indonesia economic outlook, Macroeconomic Analysis Series, LPEM FEB UI, Universitas Indonesia, 2019.

Joubert, Lydelle, The state of maritime piracy 2018: assessing the human cost, (OBP Report, One Earth Future, Broomfield Co, USA 2018), 15.

Ke, Xu, Contemporary maritime piracy in Southeast Asia, (a thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Southeast Asian Studies Programme, National University of Singapore, 2006), 36-37.

Knowles, James C., et al. Social consequences of the financial crisis in Asia, (Economic Staff Paper No. 60, Asian Development Bank, 1999), 8.

Leung, Kang H., Indonesia’s summary transport assessment, (ADB Papers on Indonesia No. 15, August 2016), 4.

Liss, Carolin, Assessing contemporary maritime piracy in Southeast Asia: trends, hotspots and responses, (Peace Research Institute Frankfurt (PRIF), PRIF Report No. 125, 2014), 18.

Liss, Carolin, The privatisation of maritime security- maritime security in Southeast Asia: between a rock and a hard place?, (Asian Research Centre, Working paper No. 141, February 2007), 8.

Morris, Lyle J. & Giacomo P. Paoli, A preliminary assessment of Indonesia’s maritime security threats and capabilities, (Rand Corporation, 2018), 15.

Oil and gas in Indonesia, (PWC Investment and Taxation Guide, May 2017).

Ollivaud, Patrice & Peter Haxton., Making the most of tourism in Indonesia to promote sustainable regional development, (Economics Department Working Papers No. 1535, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 17 February 2019), 11.

Pigeon, Maisie, et al, The state of maritime piracy 2017: assessing the economic and human cost, (BPB Report, One Earth Future, Broomfield CO, USA, 2017), 20.

Rheny W. Pulungan, ‘The limitations of the international law on piracy and maritime terrorism: options for strengthening maritime security in the Malacca Straits’, (submitted in total fulfilment of the requirements of degree of Doctor of Philosophy Melbourne Law School, the University of Melbourne, June 2014).

Raymond, Catherine Z.., Piracy in Southeast Asia: new trends, issues and responses, (Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies No. 89, Singapore, October 2006), 4.

Storey, Ian, ‘Addressing the persistent problem of piracy and sea robbery in Southeast Asia’, (2016) 30 Perspective, ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute.

Subagja, Iwan K., Creative industry competitiveness in Indonesia (study on creative industry map), International Conference on Sustainable Development Goals 2030 Challenges and its Solutions, 11-12 August 2017, pp. 157-159.

Travel & Tourism: economic impact 2018 Indonesia, World Travel & Tourism Council, March 2018.

Online sources

Baird, Rachel., Transnational security issues in the Asian maritime environment: fisheries and piracy, 2 accessed 5 August 2019.

Bateman, Sam, Sea piracy: some inconvenient truths, 2010, 14 accessed 31 July 2019.

Darmawan, Aristyo R., ASEAN synergy to overcome challenges in maritime security: Indonesian perspective as the biggest archipelagic state in ASEAN accessed 8 August 2019.

Darmawan, Aristyo R., Indonesia’s global maritime fulcrum: how can traditional coastal communities benefit from it? accessed 8 August 2019.

Dinarto, Dedi, ‘Indonesia’s blue economy initiative: rethinking maritime security challenges’, RSIS Commentary No. 206, 1 November 2017

Ikrami, Hadyu & Leonardo Bernard, Indonesia’s maritime law: national enforcement & regional cooperation, 5th APOLIA Conference, 16 June 2017, Da Nang, Vietnam accessed 30 November 2019.

Indonesia Country Report, BTI 2016 accessed 4 March 2020.

Indonesia sourcing: craft gifts 2018, Hinrich Foundation, 2019 accessed 22 May 2019.

Hastings, Justin V., The return of violent maritime organizations to Southeast Asia, 6 accessed 8 August 2019.

Malisan, Jhon., Intermodal integration in Indonesia, Research & Development Agency, Ministry of Transportation accessed 5 September 2019.

Morabito, Giacomo., Dangerous waters: the economic impacts of maritime piracy, Ph.D. Program: 2014-2016, Department of Economic, University of Messina, 39 accessed 8 August 2019.

ReCAAP/ISC, Annual Report 2018: Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia, 3 January 2019, 16 accessed 8 August 2019.

The roots of piracy in Southeast Asia, APSNet Policy Forum, 22 October 2007, 2 https://nautilus.org/apsnet/the-roots-of-piracy-in-southeast-asia/ accessed 26 July 2019.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.blj.2020.007.01.01

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.