Cultural Concern under Trade and Investment Agreements: Does it Really Work?

I Gusti Ngurah Parikesit Widiatedja

Abstract


There has been a concern over the adverse influence of globalisation on local culture. Trade and investment agreements have included cultural concern in their provisions.  Employing these provisions, countries initiated trade and investment-related measures to secure what they have presumed as cultural traditions and values. This article seeks to examine if the incorporation of cultural concern under trade and investment agreement is effective to reconcile the need for securing culture and the spirit of free trade and free flows of investment. This article is normative research, examining the existing cultural concern under trade and investment agreements, cultural-related measures of particular countries, and how the judicial bodies have responded these measures in their decisions.

This article argues that the incorporation of cultural concern has triggered a wide range of cultural-related measures. Nevertheless, the decision of judicial bodies, to some extent, has been effective to shield the purpose of cultural concern, especially to avoid disguise or inefficient protectionism, and to admit the right of countries to protect or promote their cultural traditions and values.


Keywords


cultural concern; trade agreements; investment agreements

Full Text:

PDF

References


Books

Bossche, Peter Van den, The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization (Cambridge University Press, 2010)

Echandi, Roberto, and Pierre Sauvé, Pierre, (eds), Prospects in International Investment Law and Policy (Cambridge University Press, 2013)

Eide, Asbjørn, Krause, Catarina and Rosas, Allan, (eds.), Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. A Textbook (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1995)

Gazzini, Tarcisio and Eric De Brabandere, (eds), International Investment Law: The Sources of Rights and Obligations (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2012)

Graber, Christoph Beat, Girsberger, Michael, and Nenova, Mira (eds.) Free Trade versus Cultural Diversity: WTO Negotiations in the Field of Audiovisual (Schulthess, 2004)

Hufford, Marry (ed.), Conserving Culture: A New Discourse on Heritage (University of Illinois Press, 1994)

Jayasuria, Sisira, Donald MacLaren and Magee, Gary, (eds), Negotiating a Preferential Trading Agreement: Issues, Constraints and Practical Options, (Edward Elgar, 2009)

Kalicki, Jean E and Joubin-Bret, Anna (eds), Reshaping the Investor-State Dispute Settlement System:Journeys for the 21st Century (Nijhoff, 2015)

Macrory, Patrick FJ, E Appleton, Arthur, and Plummer, Michael G (eds.) The World Trade Organization: Legal, Economic and Political Analysis (Springer, 2005)

Muchlinski, Peter, Ortino, Federico Ortino, and Schreuer, Christoph, (eds), The Oxford Handbook of International Investment Law (Oxord University Press,2008)

Salacuse, Jeswald, The Three Laws of International Investment: National, Contractual, and International Frameworks for Foreign Capital (Oxford University Press, 2013)

Sacerdoti, Giorgio, et al (eds), General Interests of Host States in International Investment Law (Cambridge University Press, 2014)

Voon, Tania, Cultural Products an d the World Trade Organization (Cambridge University Press,2007)

Vadi, Valentina, Cultural Heritage in International Investment Law and Arbitration (Cambridge University Press,2014)

Waibel, Michael, et al (eds), The Backlash Against Investment Arbitration (Kluwer, 2010)

Williams,Raymond, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (Oxford University Press, 1976)

Journal Articles

Barth, Steve, ‘Cultural Protectionism’ (1998) 11(3) World Trade 43

Bruner, Christopher M, ‘Culture, Sovereignty, and Hollywood: UNESCO and the Future of Trade in Cultural Products’ (2008) 40 New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 351,354

Bossche, Peter Van Den, ‘Free Trade and Culture: A Study of Relevant WTO Rules and Constraints on National Cultural Policy Measures’, (Maastricht Faculty of Law Working Paper Series, 2005) 6

Boryskavich, Krista, and Bowler, Aaron, ‘Hollywood North: Tax Incentives and the Film Industry in Canada’ (2002) 2 Asper Review of International Business and Trade Law 25, 26

DiMascio, Nicholas, and Pauwelyn, Joost, ‘Nondiscrimination in Trade and Investment Treaties: Worlds Apart or Two Sides of the Same Coin?’ (2008) 102 American Journal of International Law 48,49

Footer, Mary E, and Graber, Christoph B ‘Trade Liberalization and Cultural Policy' (2000) 3(1) Journal of International Economic Law 115, 125

Goodenough, Oliver R, ‘Defending the Imaginary to the Death?: Free Trade, National Identity, and Canada’s Cultural Preoccupation’, (1998) 15 Arizona Journal of International Law and Comparative Law 203, 226

Huntington, Samuel P, ’The Clash of Civilizations’ (1993) 73(3) Foreign Affairs 22, 23

James, Alison, and Dawtrey, Adam, ‘Oui are the World’ Variety (19 June 2000) 85

Juarsa, Nyoman Indra and Persian, Yanuarda Yudo, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility in International Economic Law Persepctive’ (2015) 2(2) Brawijaya Law Journal 84,96

Lockhart, John, and Voon, Tania, ‘Review of the Appellate Review in the WTO Dispute Settlement System’ (2005) 6 Melbourne Journal of International Law 474,476

Nguyen, Quynh-Dan, ‘Error: Essay not Found: Comparing Censorship in China and South Korea (2016) 3(1) Brawijaya Law Journal 17, 20

Pauwelyn, Joost ‘The Re-Convergence of International Trade and Investment Law: Causes, Questions, and Reform’ (2014) 108 American Society of International Law Proceeding 255

Yecies, Brian M, ‘Parleying Culture against Trade: Hollywood's Affairs with Korea's Screen Quotas’, (2007) 38 (1) Korea Observer, 1,2

Zimmermann, Thomas A ‘WTO Dispute Settlement at Ten: Evolution, Experiences & Evaluation,’ (2005) 60 The Swiss Review of International Economic Relations 27,53

United Nations Materials

Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 4 UNTS 275; 41 AJIL Supp. 1 (4 November 1946)

Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UN Doc.A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. I) (12 Agustus 1992)

Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, UNESCO Res. 25, 31st Gen. Conference, UNESCO Doc. 31 C/25 (2 November 2001)

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, G.A. Res. 61/295, UN Doc. A/RES/61/295, 13 September 2007, 46 ILM 1013 (2007)

WTO Materials

Appellate Body Report, Japan – Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages, WT/DS8/AB/R, (1 November 1996)

Appellate Body Report, European Communities - Measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products WT/DS400/AB/R, WT/DS401/AB/R (22 May 2014)

Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, opened for signature 15 April 1994, 1867 UNTS 3 (entered into force 1 January 1995) annex 1B (‘General Agreement on Trade in Services’)

Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, opened for signature 15 April 1994, 1867 UNTS 3 (entered into force 1 January 1995) annex 1A (‘Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures’)

Panel Report, United States – Measures Affecting the Cross-Border Supply of Gambling and Betting Services, WT/DS285/R, adopted 20 April 2005

Panel Report, China - Measures Affecting Trading Rights and Distribution Services for Certain Publications and Audiovisual Entertainment Products, WT/DS363/R (12 August 2009)

Panel Report, Japanese Measures on Imports of Leather, L/5623 - 31S/94 (15/16 May 1984)

Panel Report, Japan – Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages, WT/DS8/R, WT/DS10/R, WT/DS11/R (1 November 1996)

Panel Report, European Communities - Measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products, WTO Docs WT/DS400/R, WT/DS401R (25 November 2013)

WTO Secretariat, Report of the WTO Secretariat on the Trade Policy Review of Benin, WT/TPR/S/131 (24 May 2004)

WTO Secretariat, Report of the WTO Secretariat on the Trade Policy Review of Haiti, WT/TPR/S/99 (7 October 2003)

WTO Secretariat, Report of the WTO Secretariat on the Trade Policy Review of Israel, WT/TPR/S/58 (13 August 1999)

WTO Secretariat, Report of the WTO Secretariat on the Trade Policy Review of Brunei, WT/TPR/S/84 (27 April 2001)

WTO Secretariat, Report of the WTO Secretariat on the Trade Policy Review of Qatar, WT/TPR/S/144 ( 24 January 2005)

WTO Secretariat, Report of the WTO Secretariat on the Trade Policy Review of Taiwan, WT/TPR/S/165Rev.1 (10 October 2006)

WTO Secretariat, Report of the WTO Secretariat on the Trade Policy Review of Tunisia, WT/TPR/S/152 Rev.1 (Oct.31, 2005)

WTO Secretariat, Report of the WTO Secretariat on the Trade Policy Review of Canada, WT/TPR/S/53 (19 November 1998)

Treaties

Agreement Establishing the ASEAN–Australia–New Zealand Free Trade Area, opened for signature 27 February 2009 (entered into force 1 January 2010)

Free Trade Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and the Government of the United States of America, signed 6 June 2003 (entered into force 1 January 2004)

Free Trade Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United States of America, signed 18 May 2004 (entered into force 1 January 2005)

North American Free Trade Agreement, signed 17 December 1992, [1994] CTS 2 (entered into force 1 January 1994)

Investment Tribunals Materials

Glamis Gold Ltd v. United States of America (award) (ICSID Arbitral Tribunal, 8 June 2009)

Hepburn, Jarrod ‘Croatia Faces New Claim at ICSID by Elitech BV and Razvoj Golf Doo Over Golf Resort Development’ (Investment Arbitration Reporter, 7 September 2017)

IA Reporter, ‘Gabriel Resources Hails Romania’s Willingness to Re-run a Contested Tax Audit, But Complains of Other Unhelpful Measures Including Bid to Designate Mining Area as World Heritage Site’ (Investment Arbitration Reporter, 27 September 2016)

Peterson, Luke E , ‘New Government in Peru Confronts Recent Arbitration Loss and New Claims by Foreign Investors in Electricity Transmission, Construction, and Port Sectors’, (Investment Arbitration Reporter, 4 August 2011)




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.blj.2018.005.02.02

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.